Your latest cannabis business info from Europe

Your latest cannabis business info from Europe


FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions related to Cannabis (Marijuana, Hemp)

Why CBD is not controlled? CBD is generally not controlled because it is not considered to be a psychoactive substance and does not have the potential for abuse or dependence. In most countries, including many European countries, CBD derived from hemp plants containing less than 0.3% THC is legal and not subject to the same regulatory restrictions as marijuana or other controlled substances. Is CBD not controlled anywhere? The regulatory status of CBD products can vary by country. Furthermore, while CBD itself is not considered to be a controlled substance, products that contain CBD may be subject to other regulations. In the United States, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warning letters to companies that make unsubstantiated health claims about CBD products, and has also raised concerns about the safety of certain CBD products.  CBD control in Europe The European Union has established a regulatory for novel foods. It includes foods and food supplements that were not commonly consumed before 1997. CBD products are considered novel foods in the EU, and any company that wishes to market a CBD product as a food or food supplement must obtain approval from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).  As the popularity of CBD still grows, it is likely that regulations for CBD products will continue to change.
How CBD works? CBD is thought to interact with receptors in the central nervous system, and some evidence points toward a calming effect brought on by CBD. It may also serve as an anti-inflammatory and may produce pain-relieving effects that help with pain management. The exact mechanisms are still being studied, but research suggests that the potential therapeutic uses can be also analgesic, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic. CBD, or cannabidiol, works by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is a complex network of cell receptors and signaling molecules that help regulate a wide range of physiological processes, including mood, pain, appetite, and immune function. CBD interacts with the ECS by modulating the activity of the cannabinoid receptors. Unlike THC, another compound found in cannabis, CBD does not bind directly to the cannabinoid receptors, but instead works by enhancing the activity of the body’s own endocannabinoids. In addition to its effects on the ECS, CBD also interacts with other receptors and signaling pathways in the body, including serotonin receptors, which are involved in regulating mood and anxiety, and vanilloid receptors, which are involved in pain perception.
Switzerland flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Switzerland is illegal, though minor possession was decriminalized to a fine in 2012. Cannabis products are only permitted if they contain less than one per cent of the active substance THC. Currently only one narcotic cannabis drug preparation is officially approved for medical use in Switzerland. However, with the adoption of a revision in the Federal Act on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances (NarcA), accepted by popular vote in 2008, and in effect since 2011, Swiss physicians can obtain a special permit from the Federal Office of Public Health for their patients with the allowance to prescribe medical cannabis for 12 months. Only two pharmacies in the country are permitted to dispense cannabis tinctures and cannabis oil concentrates for patients with serious or terminal illnesses.
Bosnia and herzegovina flag in cannabis leaf
Producing, importing and selling recreational cannabis is prohibited in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The medical use of cannabis is not regulated in Bosnia and Herzegovina as such. However, the Law on Prevention and Suppression of Narcotic Drugs Abuse of Bosnia and Herzegovina only permits growing, importing and selling cannabis for industrial purposes. Therefore, it’s arguable that growing, importing and selling of cannabis for medical use is not permitted.
Iceland flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Iceland is illegal. Offenses such as sale and cultivation are heavily punished and can result in jail time. Possession of small amounts will not result in jail time, but offenders will still be subject to arrest and payment of a fine. There are currently no cannabis-related medical associations in Iceland. The only cannabis medical product that has been legalized is Savitex, a commonly prescribed spray for muscular dystrophy. Savitex is strictly regulated in Iceland and can only be prescribed by a selection of licensed neurologists.
Sweden flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Sweden is illegal for all purposes. It is illegal for recreational purposes, for most medical purposes and possession of even small amounts of cannabis is a criminal offence. Consequently, limited medical usage of cannabis-based drugs is only allowed for specific conditions.
Finland flag in cannabis leaf
Finland’s Narcotics Act states that use, sale or possession of any drugs (including cannabis) is a criminal offence. It also recommends a punishment of a fine or up to six months in prison. If the quantity of cannabis is regarded as ‘insignificant’ then the punishment may be waived. Repeat offenders are unlikely to have their prosecution waived. An extremely limited group of medicinal users are permitted to purchase medicines containing cannabis from one of 27 apothecaries that have the permit to sell medical cannabis.
Denmark flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Denmark is illegal for recreational use and the punishment for small amounts (up to 9.9 g) for personal use is typically a fine. In certain cases such as socially vulnerable people, a warning can be given instead of a fine. Larger quantities (more than 100 g) generally results in a prison sentence. Driving under the influence of cannabis is illegal and all but the smallest amounts of THC in a blood sample results in a fine and loss of the driver’s license. Medical use is allowed through a four-year pilot program initiated in January 2018. Three types of cannabis derivatives for medical use were approved by the Danish Medicines Agency in 2011, but require prescription.
Norway flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational cannabis is not legal in Norway. Up to 15 g is considered an amount for personal use, and is punished with a fine in the case of first-time offenders. However, possessing more is punished more harshly. Repeat offenders or dealers can face prison charges. The type of fine given for drug offences are of the more serious category, and will appear on a criminal record. Since 2018, the Norwegian Medicines Agency allows doctors approved by the agency to prescribe medical cannabis for patients on a case-by-case basis.
Serbia flag in cannabis leaf
The Serbian Law on Psychoactive Controlled Substances and related regulations consider cannabis as psychoactive controlled substance (narcotic drug). Cannabis is treated in the same manner as other psychoactive controlled substances. Recreational use of Cannabis is illegal in Serbia. Keeping small quantities of the narcotic drugs for personal use may be punishable with up to 3 years’ imprisonment. Keeping large quantities of the narcotic drugs is punishable with 3 to 10 years’ imprisonment. In case of production, processing and sale of narcotic drugs, the punishment is 3 to 12 years’ imprisonment, and in case of organised group 5 to 15 years. Medical treatment which includes the use of psychoactive controlled substances can be conducted exclusively in health care institutions and private practice established in accordance with the law and must be compliant with professionally established positions and medical doctrine, as well as prescribed standards, guidelines, and protocols. That would include medical cannabis as well. However, it should be noted that currently there are no cannabis-based medicines registered in Serbia, so this is rather theoretical.
Slovenia flag in cannabis leaf
Production, import, use, possession and sale of cannabis for recreational use are prohibited by law. While cannabis remains illegal in Slovenia, the medical cannabis community has been growing. Since 2016, when cannabis was re-categorised within the Decree on the classification of illicit drugs, it has been permitted to use it for medical purposes. Cannabinoids can be prescribed for medical use. The Ministry of Health is preparing an upgrade of regulations that will set clear rules for the production of cannabis for medical purposes. This will enable the cultivation, processing and research of this plant in Slovenia.
Montenegro flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis is illegal in all forms in Montenegro, though specific penalties are hard to find. However, buying, selling, and possessing cannabis are felony charges which can carry large fines and steep jail time. It is worth noting that this country serves as a major trafficking conduit for cannabis moving from Eastern to Western Europe, which may explain why it’s so unpopular. Montenegro has no medical cannabis program. A program was proposed in 2014, but failed to gain traction and has not been reintroduced since.
Estonia flag in cannabis leaf
Medical cannabis is legal in Estonia, but the program is limited and only includes cannabinoid-based medications. There is no national cannabis program; patients can only access cannabinoid-based medications, not the plant itself. Cannabis remains illegal in the country for recreational purposes, but is generally decriminalized. Using, buying, or possessing small amounts of cannabis, usually defined as 7.5 grams or less, is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine.
Latvia flag in cannabis leaf
Both recreational and medical cannabis are illegal for sale, possession, or cultivation in Latvia. Latvia did not outlaw cannabis in any form until it became a part of the USSR, what is unique in comparison to other European countries. Possession and use of small amounts of cannabis (usually considered to be a gram or less) is not a criminal offense and is punishable by a warning or a fine. But repeated offenses of small amounts with 12 months is a criminal offense, and punishable by up to 3 months in prison, community service, or a fine.
Lithuania flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational use No, in Lithuania cannabis is not legal for recreational use. This country criminalized cannabis in 2017, being sole country in the world that criminalized cannabis in the 21st century. Until 2013 Lithuania was the only country in the European Union where the cultivation of industrial hemp was banned. Medical use Yes, medical cannabis is available in Lithuania, however doctors can only prescribe it for conditions which have research proving their safety and efficacy. Industrial hemp Yes, industrial hemp is legal in Lithuania, however it was the last country in Europe which did that. Industrial hemp is legal in Lithuania from 2013. CBD in Lithuania Similarly to other European countries, CBD is treated as a supplement in Lithuania and, if does not contain THC, is available for sale.
Cyprus flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational cannabis is not legal in Cyprus. Cannabis is classified as a Class B drug, which carries up to eight years in jail for possession and up to a life sentence for using or trafficking. Cyprus has explicit possession thresholds for charging people: anything more than three cannabis plants or 30 grams of cannabis is considered drug trafficking, rather than possession. There is a medical cannabis program. In 2019, Cypriot lawmakers approved a law legalizing the possession, import and export, and cultivation of marijuana for medical use.
Greece flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Greece is illegal for recreational purposes. In 2017, the Greek government legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes, and a year later, they lifted the ban on growing or producing it. This enables pharmaceutical companies to grow cannabis legally, and industrial hemp suppliers too.
Macedonia flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational use of Cannabis is not allowed in North Macedonia. Pursuant to the Macedonian Criminal Code, keeping narcotic drugs, its production or its placing on the market (even for personal use) is punishable with 6 months imprisonment up to ten years’ imprisonment. On November 20 2020, the prime minister Zoran Zaev said the government is looking to legalize the recreational use of marijuana in the country’s hospitality places and tourist hotspots, including Skopje and Ohrid. The Macedonian Law on the control of Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropics Substances consider Medical Cannabis as psychoactive controlled substance (narcotic drug). The Medical Cannabis is treated as other psychoactive controlled substance. On February 9, 2016, the Macedonian Parliament Health Committee gave its approval for the legalization of medical marijuana.


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