The Serbian Law on Psychoactive Controlled Substances and related regulations consider cannabis as psychoactive controlled substance (narcotic drug). Cannabis is treated in the same manner as other psychoactive controlled substances. Recreational use of Cannabis is illegal in Serbia. Keeping small quantities of the narcotic drugs for personal use may be punishable with up to 3 years’ imprisonment. Keeping large quantities of the narcotic drugs is punishable with 3 to 10 years’ imprisonment. In case of production, processing and sale of narcotic drugs, the punishment is 3 to 12 years’ imprisonment, and in case of organised group 5 to 15 years.
Medical treatment which includes the use of psychoactive controlled substances can be conducted exclusively in health care institutions and private practice established in accordance with the law and must be compliant with professionally established positions and medical doctrine, as well as prescribed standards, guidelines, and protocols. That would include medical cannabis as well. However, it should be noted that currently there are no cannabis-based medicines registered in Serbia, so this is rather theoretical.