Your latest cannabis business info from Europe

Your latest cannabis business info from Europe


FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions related to Cannabis (Marijuana, Hemp)

Albania flag in cannabis leaf
On 27 January 1995, the criminal code of the Republic of Albania was created, and the usage, production and trade of narcotics was prohibited. Cannabis is not specifically listed however the government made clear that it falls within the definition of narcotics. Thus, the sale, offer for sale, giving or receiving of any form, distribution, trading, transport, sending, delivering, and keeping of narcotic and psychotropic substances and seeds of narcotic plants, in conflict with the law (excluding cases when it is for personal use and in small doses) is sentenced to imprisonment of from five to ten years. The use of cannabis for medical purposes is prohibited in Albania, and doctors are not permitted to prescribe it for health conditions.
Bulgaria flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational use No, recreational cannabis use is not legal in Bulgaria. Cannabis is considered a List 1, “high-risk drug” in Bulgaria. Cannabis falls under the Narcotic Substances and Precursors Control Act. Possession of small amounts are considered a minor offense. Thus, it is a subject to a fine. Consuming cannabis is an administrative offense, also a subject to a fine. Possession of large amounts is a criminal offense that can incur one to six years in jail. Trafficking cannabis means two to eight years in jail. Additionally, there is not a set quantity that determines a “large amount”. CBD in Bulgaria CBD is legal in Bulgaria. The country followed the European with sale of CBD products back in 2019. While the EU considers CBD a ‘novel food’ that needs a special license, the Bulgarian Government classified CBD as a “traditional food,” which does not need a special license. CBD oil and other hemp-based products are available for purchase throughout the country. Industrial hemp Farmers can grow industrial hemp with a permit from the government. Medical cannabis Currently there is no medical cannabis program in Bulgaria.
Malta flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Malta is legal, within limits. In 2018, the Parliament of Malta legalised medical cannabis. On 18 February 2021, Prime Minister Robert Abela announced plans to introduce a law that would legalize possession of a small amount of cannabis and plants for personal use. On 14 December 2021, recreational cannabis was partly legalized as the Parliament of Malta legalised recreational cannabis for personal use, becoming the first EU country to do so. In Malta, it is now legal to carry up to 7g cannabis and each household may grow up to 4 plants. It is also legal to establish cannabis associations, known as Cannabis Social Clubs, which can cultivate cannabis to distribute among members, up to a maximum of 7g per day and 50g per month. Smoking in public remains banned. The law came into force with the signature of President on 18 December 2021.
Portugal flag in cannabis leaf
Producing, importing, and selling recreational cannabis is prohibited in Portugal. However, it is not considered a crime to possess plants, substances, or preparations in quantities which do not exceed that required for average individual consumption during a 10-day period. Thus, cannabis in Portugal is decriminalized, as a result of the decriminalization of all drugs in Portugal in 2001. Amounts for personal use are considered to be up to 25 grams of plant material or 5 grams of hashish. In a 10-day supply these are not subject to any penalties for a first-time offense. Subsequent offenses may be subject to civil penalties or mandated treatment Medical use of cannabis was legalized in 2018. Under the Portuguese Law, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is admissible, provided the necessary requirements and the mandatory licenses are obtained.
Italy flag in cannabis leaf
At present, cannabis is legal in Italy for medical and industrial uses, although it is strictly regulated, while it is decriminalized for recreational uses. In particular, the possession of small amounts of marijuana for personal use is a misdemeanor and it is subjected to fines, as well as the suspension of personal documents (e.g. passports and driver’s licenses). Nevertheless, the unauthorized sale of cannabis-related products is illegal and punishable with imprisonment, as is the unlicensed cultivation of cannabis, although recent court cases have effectively established the legality of cultivating cannabis in small amounts and for exclusively personal use. After the inclusion of the active compounds of cannabis plant origin in the Medical Table by Ministerial Decree on 23 January 2013, doctors in Italy are able to prescribe cannabis-based medicine and any pharmacy, if properly supplied, can distribute cannabis products in the forms and doses defined in the doctor’s prescription
Croatia flag in cannabis leaf
Although adult-use cannabis is not legal, Croatia has a relatively progressive approach to cannabis laws. Since 2013, the possession of cannabis for personal use is considered a misdemeanor and punishable by a fine of between €650-2,600. In 2015, the country legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. In 2019, the country approved the cultivation of hemp for medical purposes While recreational cannabis remains illegal, attitudes are changing. In March 2022, a cannabis museum opened Zagreb. CBD is legal in Croatia, so long as it has 0.2% THC or less. You can find CBD products online and in retail stores throughout the country.
Hungary flag in cannabis leaf
Producing, selling, purchasing, trafficking or importing cannabis containing THC for recreational use are all strictly prohibited by the Hungarian Criminal Code. Medical Marijuana Generally, it is not permitted to grow, import or sell cannabis for medical use in Hungary. The production, manufacturing, export, import, transfer, purchasing, sales, storage, handling, handover or use of narcotics and psychotropic substances, and related education, research and analysis, as well as having plants suitable for the production of narcotics cultivated and related education, research and analysis, may only be carried out with an activity licence issued by the National Institute for Pharmacy and Nutrition (OGYÉI).
Austria flag in cannabis leaf
Since 2016, use of cannabis hasn’t been listed as a criminal offence; which effectively decriminalises it. However, possession of any drugs can be punished with up to six months in prison or a fine; providing the amount of cannabis is below the threshold. The threshold is defined by a Ministry of Health decree, and is currently set at 20 grams of THC (pure substance) or 40 grams of THCA. The maximum sentence for possession of amounts that exceed ‘personal use’ is one-year imprisonment. Cannabis in Austria is legal for scientific and medical usage, but illegal for recreational usage. Medical Marijuana In 2008, Austria passed a bill permitting cannabis cultivation for medicinal and research purposes. The bill stated that all cannabis would be grown under the control of the Health Ministry, and that domestic cultivation of cannabis for medicinal purposes would still be illegal. The country permits the supply of medicines to patients with a prescription from a registered medical practitioner.
Belgium flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis is technically illegal in Belgium, but personal possession has been decriminalised since 2003; adults over the age of 18 are allowed to possess up to 3 grams. From 2005 full prosecution is enacted for cases of possession wherein the carried amount exceeds 3 grams, or aggravating circumstances are identified including ‘blatant’ possession in a public place or an environment where children might be present. For instances where larger amounts are in possession, the details of the prosecution are dealt with on a case-by-case basis, leaving the boundaries of cultivation limits unclear. As a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), and the European Council (EC), Belgian drug policy is affected by international treaties which prohibit the large-scale production, distribution, and trade of cannabis. In the previous and ongoing developments of its drug policy, Belgium has remained within the frameworks of international and European law. Medicinal cannabis in Belgium In Belgium, the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes is legal under specific circumstances, and is increasing in prevalence. Since 2015, pharmacists and general practitioners in Belgium have been legally allowed to distribute “prepackaged” cannabis-based medicines, as well as cannaboidal (“CBD”) powder. Individuals requiring medicinal cannabis are technically able to cultivate their own personal growth as long as they follow the restrictions outlined by the legislation of July 1 2019.
Netherlands flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in the Netherlands is illegal, but is decriminalised for personal use. Recreational consumption of the drug is tolerated, and it is available in coffeeshops. Cannabis was first criminalised in the Netherlands in 1953, following earlier laws against its import and export in 1928. Loosening In 1972, the Dutch government divided drugs into more- and less-dangerous categories, with cannabis being in the lesser category. Accordingly, possession of 30 grams or less was made a misdemeanor. Cannabis has been available for recreational use in coffee shops since 1976. Now cannabis products are only sold openly in certain local “coffeeshops” and possession of up to 5 grams for personal use is decriminalised, however, the police may still confiscate it. Other types of sales and transportation are not permitted. Though retail sales are tolerated, production, transportation, and bulk possession of marijuana outside of retail stores is illegal, preventing testing for contaminants and dosing. Medical marijuana  Since 2003, there has been a legal prescription drug known as “Mediwiet”, available at Dutch pharmacies. There are five different types of medical cannabis in the Netherlands; the fifth contains Cannabidiol and almost no Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Spain flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational use Cannabis in Spain is decriminalised for personal cultivation and use. Cannabis clubs are a popular way for enthusiasts to buy and use cannabis as a technically-legal product. In private places, consumption and possession of up to 100 grams is legal. However, it is illegal for trade or commercial purposes. Sale and importation of any quantity of cannabis is a criminal offence. Consumption and cultivation by adults in a private space is legal. Cannabis plants that are located somewhere visible from the street/public place are considered a serious administrative offense, which leads to a fine from 601 to 30,000€. Medical cannabis Surprisingly, for now, in Spain, medical cannabis is not regulated. However, in June 2022, the Spanish Congress approved a report on the analysis of experiences of cannabis regulation for medicinal use Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices gave authorisations to cultivate cannabis for research purposes for medical and scientific purposes. Therefore, certain patients can have access to a cannabis-based drug only on medical prescription (patients with endometriosis, multiple sclerosis, cancer, etc.). Thus, there are not clear regulations on medical cannabis in Spain yet, but the country is working on them.
Ireland flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Ireland is illegal for recreational purposes. It is illegal to produce or supply cannabis-based products that are not for medicinal use. Use for medical purposes requires case-by-case approval by the Minister for Health. In Irish parliament there is now being debated a regulation, which would enable a person who is at least 18 years of age to have possession, for the person’s personal use, of either or both cannabis and cannabis resin that in each case does not exceed a specified amount and to provide for related matters.
UK flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis is illegal to possess, grow, distribute or sell in the UK. It is a Class B drug, with penalties for unlicenced dealing, unlicenced production and unlicenced trafficking of up to 14 years in prison, an unlimited fine, or both. The maximum penalty for possession of cannabis is five years in prison and an unlimited fine. Medical use of cannabis was legalised in the UK on 1 November 2018, after the cases of two epileptic children who benefited from using cannabis brought increased public attention to the issue.
Czech republic flag in cannabis leaf
Recreational use No, recreational use of cannabis is not allowed in the Czech Republic. The possession of: up to 10 grams of marijuana, hashish or hemp oil or the growing of up to five cannabis plants is an offense with a fine of worth up to €500. Medical cannabis Czech Republic legalised cannabis for medical use. Czech Republic allows companies growing cannabis for medical use. However, upon obtaining a licence and a permission to dispose of addictive substances and related products. The State Institute for Drug Control issues all the licences. They are for a maximum period of five years and the Institute can prolong them. However, the request for prolongation must come from the licence holder 6 months before expiration. CBD in Czech Republic Various CBD products are offered and advertised in the Czech Republic but such products often do not meet legal requirements. As regards food supplements, there is an elementary condition that these products contain no psychotropic or addictive substance, e.g. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). There is a zero tolerance for THC in food supplements in the Czech Republic. Industrial hemp Cannabis plants with a maximum of 1% of THC is permitted for industrial sales. However, relevant customs authority must receive a notification regarding growing of industrial cannabis plants on more than 100 m2 of land.
Poland flag in cannabis leaf
Adult-use, commonly known as recreational cannabis, is currently illegal in Poland. Adult-use cannabis decriminalisation is limited, and its further development is questionable. Polish legislation does not generally allow the growing of cannabis that contains more than 0.3% THC in flowering or fruiting tops of plants from which the resin has not been removed (Non-Fibrous Cannabis). The level of THC has been increased on 7 May 2022 – until this date it was set at 0,2%. In accordance with these legislative changes, research institutes will be allowed to grow Non-Fibrous Cannabis in order to obtain raw material for the preparation of prescription drugs (provided that such a research institute has obtained a permit issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector “CPI”). Moreover, scientific entities may grow Non-Fibrous Cannabis for scientific purposes after obtaining a permit from the CPI. It is also possible to import and sell such cannabis for medical use as a pharmaceutical raw material intended for preparing prescription drugs. Non-Fibrous Cannabis herb, tinctures, resin and other extracts may constitute a pharmaceutical raw material after obtaining a marketing authorisation.
France flag in cannabis leaf
In France, possession and use of cannabis fall under criminal law and the Loi du 31 décembre 1970, regarding health measures against drug abuse and suppression of drug trafficking. Thus, it is forbidden to produce, import and sell recreational cannabis containing THC. However, on 13 January 2022, the French National Assembly dismissed a draft law related to the legalization of the production, offer and use of cannabis over the French government’s control. Nonetheless, derogations exist for medical purposes. The pharmaceutical establishments and any establishments authorized by the French Health Agency (ANSM) to manufacture, import, and distribute active substances may be allowed to perform the above-mentioned acts, including, since 1st March 2022, the culture and production of cannabis. Cannabis plants may only be held and cultivated for medicinal purposes by growers who entered into an agreement with these establishments. Also, certain varieties of cannabis, without narcotic properties, can be used for industrial and commercial purposes under two cumulative conditions: the plant is one of the authorized varieties of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.); and the plant as well as the end-product must have a THC content of less than 0.3%.
Germany flag in cannabis leaf
Cannabis in Germany is legal for certain limited medical contexts, but illegal for recreational usage, though possession of minor amounts is not always prosecuted. In January 2022, Federal Minister of Justice Marco Buschmann stated that the ministry was drafting cannabis regulations, but the date of legalisation would be up to the Ministry of Health. A 2022 German cannabis legalization framework was introduced in October. The German health minister wants to make it legal for adults to purchase and own up to 30g (1 oz) of cannabis for recreational use and to privately grow up to three plants.
Medical cannabis – what is it in general? Medical cannabis is also known as medical marijuana. This name refers to the cannabis plant or its components, to treat various medical conditions. The reason why cannabis plants can have therapeutic use are existing cannabinoids. The two main cannabinoids that have been extensively studied are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We may find medical cannabis products in a variety of forms. Where available, we can buy them as dried plants, edibles, oils and tinctures. What illnesses do medical cannabis cure? People can use medical cannabis to treat a variety of conditions. We can list here chronic pain, muscle spasms, and epilepsy, among others. However, in some cases, medical marijuana may be used as an alternative to other medications. Drugs containing cannabinoids may be helpful in treating nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, and loss of appetite and weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. How to get medical marijuana? Where available, medical cannabis is typically prescribed by a physician. In such cases it can be obtained through licensed dispensaries or pharmacies. The laws and regulations regarding medical cannabis vary from country to country. In some countries, it can only be available for certain conditions or only in certain forms, such as oils or capsules.


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